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Education Links


Croup is a respiratory infection and usually affects infants and children. It is caused by a virus and can cause inflammation and swelling of the Larynx (voice box) and trachea (windpipe), narrowing the airway and making breathing difficult.

Symptoms of croup include a harsh cough, hoarse or raspy voice, fever and difficulty breathing. The child may also have stridor, which is a high-pitched sound made during breathing that is caused by the narrowed airway. In severe cases the child may turn blue and have difficulty swallowing or drinking.

Treatment for croup may include using a cool-mist humidifier, giving the child steroids or epinephrine to reduce inflammation, and providing supportive care such as fluids and rest. In some severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.

Prevention of croup includes practicing good hand hygiene and avoiding contact with sick individuals. Vaccinations, such as the Hib vaccine and the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine, can also help prevent croup.

Hand Foot Mouth Disease

Hand, foot, mouth disease (HFMD) is a viral infection that most commonly affects infants and young children under the age of 5. It is caused by the coxsackievirus. And symptoms usually begin with a fever, sore throat and a general feeling of illness. A day or two after the fever begins, painful sores may appear in the mouth and a skin rash may develop on the hands, feet and sometimes the buttocks. HFMD is spread through contact with fecal matter, salvia, and fluid from the blisters or rash of an infected person. The best prevention is good hygiene, such as washing hands thoroughly and avoiding close contact with infected individuals. There is no specific cure for HFMD, but symptoms can be managed with over-the-counter pain relievers and fever reducers. Most cases of HFMD resolve on their own within 7-10 days. In rare cases, complications such a s viral meningitis or encephalitis may occur.


Pharyngitis is the medical term used to describe inflammation of the pharynx, which is the part of the throat that is located behind the mouth and nasal cavity. The condition is commonly known as a sore throat and is often caused by bacterial or viral infection. Symptoms of pharyngitis include sore throat, difficulty swallowing, redness and inflammation of the throat, swollen glands in the neck, and fever. Treatment typically involves rest, plenty of fluids, pain relief medications, and antibiotics if the condition is caused by bacterial infection. In some cases pharyngitis can lead to complications, such as tonsillitis, otitis media (ear infection), and abscess formation.

Atopic Dermatitis

Atopic Dermatitis is a type of eczema that causes dry, itchy and inflamed skin. It is a chronic condition that often starts in infancy and may continue into adulthood. Atopic Dermatitis can appear or any part of the body is most commonly found on the face, neck, hands and feet. The exact cause of atopic dermatitis is unknown, but it is believed to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Treatment may include using moisturizers, avoiding triggers such as certain foods or irritants, and medications such as antihistamines or topical corticosteroids.


Bronchiolitis is a respiratory illness that primarily affects infants and young children. It occurs when the smallest air passage in the lungs, called the bronchioles, becomes inflamed and filled with mucus.

It is usually caused by a viral infection, most commonly respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), but can also be caused by other viruses such as adenovirus, rhinovirus, and coronavirus.

The symptoms of bronchiolitis include coughing, wheezing, rapid breathing, fever, and difficulty breathing, particularly in infants under 6 months of age. Treatment for bronchiolitis is usually focused on managing the symptoms, with options such as oxygen therapy, hydration, and medication to reduce inflammation and fever.

Prevention measures include frequent hand washing, avoiding close contact with sick individuals, and getting vaccinated against RSV if you are at high risk.


Menarche is the onset of the first menstrual period in a female’s life. It typically occurs between the ages of 8 and 15 years, with an average age of 12 years. Menarche signifies the transition from childhood to puberty and marks the beginning of a female’s menstrual cycles, which are controlled by hormones and result in the shedding of the uterine lining if fertilization does not occur. Menarche also marks the beginning of a female’s ability to bear children and is a significant milestone in a young girl’s development.

During menarche, several physical changes occur in a girl’s body:

  1. 1. Breast Development - The Breasts start to develop and become fuller.
  2. 2. Pubic hair growth - Pubic hair states to grow around the genital area.
  3. 3. Menstruation - The first menstrual period starts, marking the beginning of the reproductive phase.
  4. 4. Increased vaginal discharge - The Body Starts producing more vaginal discharge with is a natural lubricant and helps maintain vaginal health.
  5. 5. Height and weight gain - girls may experience a growth spurt and gain weight.
  6. 6. Changes in body shape - The body begins to take on a more adult shape, with wider hips and a narrower waist.
  7. 7. Skin Changes - The skin may become oiler, and acne may develop.
Overall, menarche is a significant milestone in a girl’s life, marking the beginning of puberty and the start of her reproductive years.


Acne is a common skin condition that occurs when hair follicles become clogged with oil, dead skin cells, and bacteria. This can lead to the formation of pimples, blackheads, whiteheads, and other types of blemishes.

Acne can affect people of all ages and skin types, though it is most common during puberty when hormonal changes may increase oil production. Other risk factors for acne include genetics, stress, dietary factors, and certain medications.

Treatment for acne may vary depending on the severity of the condition and the individual’s specific needs. Over-the-counter creams, gels, and cleansers may help clear mild cases of acne, while prescription medications may be necessary for more severe cases. Lifestyle changes, such a s reducing stress and avoiding certain foods, may also help reduce the frequency and severity of acne outbreaks.


Thrush, also known as oral candidiasis, is a fungal infection of the mouth and throat caused by overgrowth of Candida, a type of yeast. It is most common in people with weakened immune systems, such a s those with HIV/AIDS or undergoing chemotherapy, but can also occur in healthy individuals. Symptoms of thrush include white, cream-colored, or yellow spots on the inside of the mouth or tongue, soreness or redness in the mouth, difficulty swallowing, and loss of taste.

Treatment typically involves antifungal medications, such as clotrimazole or fluconazole, which can be taken in the form of tablets, lozenges, or mouthwashes. Good Oral hygiene, including brushing and flossing regularly,can also help prevent thrush.

Newborn Exam

The following are some of the things that are typically included in a newborn exam:
  1. 1. Evaluation of vital signs, such as temperature , heart rate, and respiratory rate.
  2. 2. Evaluation of newborn's weight, length, and head circumference.
  3. 3. Inspection of baby's eyes, ears, nose, and mouth.
  4. 4. Examination of the baby’s skin for any rash, birthmarks, or other abnormalities.
  5. 5. Evaluation of the baby’s muscles and reflexes.
  6. 6. Listening to the baby’s heart and lungs.
  7. 7. Examination of the baby’s abdomen to check for any abnormalities.
  8. 8. Evaluation of the baby’s genitalia to ensure normal development.
  9. 9. Observation of the baby’s behavior and response to stimuli.
Overall, the newborn is an important step in assessing the health of a new baby ensuring that any potential health issues are identified and addressed.


The rhinovirus is a small, single-stranded RNA virus responsible for causing the common cold. It is highly contagious and spreads easily from person to person through respiratory droplets and contact with contaminated surfaces.

Symptoms of the rhinovirus infection include runny nose, congestion, sore throat, cough and sneezing.

Treatment is usually focused on managing symptoms, but there is currently no cure for a rhinovirus infection.

Maintaining good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently and avoiding close contact with sick individuals, can help reduce the risk of contracting the virus.

What are the symptoms associated with Rhinovirus Infection?
  1. 1. Runny or stuffy nose - usually the main symptoms
  2. 2. Sneezing
  3. 3. Sore Throat
  4. 4. Cough
  5. 5. Headache
  6. 6. Low-grade fever
  7. 7. Fatigue
  8. 8. Muscle Aches
These symptoms resemble those of other upper respiratory infections, such as the common Cold. In some cases, people infected with Rhinovirus may also experience a loss of taste or smell. Symptoms usually last 7-10 days.


An enterovirus is a group of viruses that primarily infect the gastrointestinal tract and sometimes the respiratory system. There are more than 100 types of enteroviruses, including the poliovirus, coxsackievirus, and echovirus. Most enterovirus infections are mild and go unnoticed, causing symptoms such as fever, headaches, and body aches.

However some enteroviruses can cause more serious illness, such as meningitis, encephalitis, and hand-foot-mouth disease.

Enterovirus can spread through contact with contaminated surfaces, fecal matter, and respiratory secretions. There is no specific treatment for most enterovirus infections, and preventions involves good hygiene practices and vaccination where applicable.

The most common symptoms of a enterovirus infection include:
  1. 1. Fever
  • 2. Headache
  • 3. Muscle Aches
  • 4. Sore Throat
  • 5. Runny Nose
  • 6. Cough
  • 7. Skin Rash
  • 8. Diarrhea
  • 9. Vomiting
  • 10. Abdominal Pain
  • 11. Lethargy
  • 12. Irritability
  • 13. Loss of Appetite
  • Note that not all of these symptoms may occur and severity of symptoms will vary from person to person.